Mode of application
- Determine the available alternatives
- Determine the consequence(s) of each action
- Every action you make has a consequence. Ethics dictates that the standard should be that which a reasonably intelligent person would judge the consequences of.
- Evaluate the consequences
- Some sort of metric must be determined.
- Which consequence results in greater happiness?
- The alternative with the best consequences is the morally right action
- Based on consideration of individual’s rights, duties, and obligations.
- individual autonomy - we are self legislating being, we determine the laws that govern our actions.
For each right a person has, there is a corresponding duty. For instance, if someone has a right to life, then someone else has a duty not to take that life.
Perfect duties - You either stole something or you didn’t.
Imperfect duties - Helping others in need. How much do you have to do to fulfill that duty?
- Laissez Faire Capitalism → (Libertarianism)
- Welfare State Capitalism
- Socialism - Socialism infringes upon individual autonomy
- Marxism / Communism
Equality ←→ Freedom